Informational Site NetworkInformational Site Network
Privacy
 
Home Gardening in General Fruits & Vegetables Plants & Flowers
Articles - Directory - Indoor Gardening - Small Gardens Cucumbers - Apple Growing - Asparagus - Walnut Growing - Vegetables Flowers - Clovers

Most Viewed

Ferns
Harrowing
Hardy Climbing Vines Ivies
Berries And Small Fruits
Apples
Requisites Of The Home Vegetable Garden
Plant Names.
Plants And The Calendar.
Sacred Plants.
The Maidenhairs


Least Viewed

The Rose: Its General Care And Culture
Planning The Garden
The Wild Garden A Plea For Our Native Plants
Planting The Lawn
Plants For Special Purposes
The Gladiolus
The Winter Garden
Iv. Crops That May Follow Others
Mulching
The Hardy Border








GRAPE PRUNING







As stated above, the vine is cut back, when planting, to three or four eyes. The subsequent pruning--and the reader must at once distinguish between pruning, and training, or the way in which the vines are placed--will determine more than anything else the success of the undertaking. Grapes depend more upon proper pruning than any other fruit or vegetable in the garden. Two principles must be kept track of in this work. First principle: _the annual crop is borne only on canes of the same year's growth, springing from wood of the previous season's growth_. Second principle: _the vine, if left to itself, will set three or four times the number of bunches it can properly mature_. As a result of these facts, the following system of pruning has been developed and must be followed for sure and full-sized crops. (1) At time of planting, cut back to three or four eyes, and after these sprout leave only one (or two) of them, which should be staked up. (2) Following winter (December to March), leave only one cane and cut this back to three or four eyes. (3) Second growing season, save only two canes, even if several sprout, and train these to stake or trellis. These two vines, or arms, branching from the main stem, form the foundation for the one-year canes that bear the fruit. However, to prevent the vine's setting too much fruit (see second principle above) these arms must be cut back in order to limit the number of fruit-bearing canes that will spring from them, therefore: (4) Second winter pruning, cut back these arms to eight or ten buds-- and we have prepared for the first crop of fruit, about forty bunches, as the fruiting cane from each bud will bear two bunches on the average. However these main arms will not bear fruiting-canes another year (see first principle above) and therefore: (5) At the third winter pruning, (a) of the canes that bore fruit, only the three or four nearest the main stem or trunk are left; (b) these are cut back to eight or ten buds each, and (c) everything else is ruthlessly cut away. Each succeeding year the same system is continued, care being taken to rub off, each May, buds or sprouts starting on the main trunk or arms. The wood, in addition to being cut back, must be well ripened; and the wood does not ripen until after the fruit. It therefore sometimes becomes necessary to cut out some of the bunches in order to hasten the ripening of the rest. At the same time the application of some potash fertilizer will be helpful. If the bunches do not ripen up quickly and pretty nearly together, the vine is overloaded and being damaged for the following year. The matter of pruning being mastered, the question of training is one of individual choice. Poles, trellises, arbors, walls--almost anything may be used. The most convenient system, however, and the one I would strongly recommend for practical home gardening for results, is known as the (modified) Kniffen system. It is simplicity itself. A stout wire is stretched five or six feet above the ground; to this the single main trunks of the vine run up, and along it are stretched the two or three arms from which the fruiting-canes hang down. They occupy the least possible space, so that garden crops may be grown practically on the same ground. I have never seen it tried, but where garden space is limited I should think that the asparagus bed and the Kniffen grape- arbor just described could be combined to great advantage by placing the vines, in spaces left for them, directly in the asparagus row. Of course the ground would have to be manured for two crops. A 2-8-10 fertilizer is right for the grapes. If using stable manure, apply also ashes or some other potash fertilizer. If the old-fashioned arbor is used, the best way is to run the main trunk up over it and cut the laterals back each year to two or three eyes. The most serious grape trouble which the home gardener is likely to encounter is the black-rot Where only a few grapes are grown the simplest way of overcoming this disease is to get a few dozen cheap manila store-bags and fasten one, with a couple of ten-penny nails, over each bunch. Cut the mouth of the bag at sides and edges, cover the bunch, fold the flaps formed over the cane, and fasten. They are put on after the bunches are well formed and hasten the ripening of the fruit, as well as protecting it. On a larger scale, spraying will have to be resorted to. Use Bordeaux, 5-5-50, from third leaf's appearance to middle of July; balance of season with ammoniacal copper carbonate. The spray should be applied in particular just before every rain-- especially on the season's growth. Besides the spraying, all trimmed- off wood, old leaves and twigs, withered bunches and grapes, or "mummies," and refuse of every description, should be carefully raked up in the spring and burned or buried. Also give clean culture and keep the main stems clean. The grape completes the list of the small fruits worth while to the average home gardener. If you have not already experimented with them, do not let your garden go longer without them. They are all easily obtained (none costing more than a few cents each), and a very limited number will keep the family table well supplied with healthy delicacies, which otherwise, in their best varieties and condition, could not be had at all. The various operations of setting out, pruning and spraying will soon become as familiar as those in the vegetable garden. There is no reason why every home garden should not have its few rows of small fruits, yielding their delicious harvests in abundance.





Next: A CALENDAR OF OPERATIONS

Previous: THE GRAPE



Add to del.icio.us Add to Reddit Add to Digg Add to Del.icio.us Add to Google Add to Twitter Add to Stumble Upon
Add to Informational Site Network
Report
Privacy
SHAREADD TO EBOOK


Viewed 916