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Apples delight in a moist, cool climate. All apples will notsucceed on the same soil, some preferring clay, while others grow best in sandy loam or in well-drained peat. For a deep, good soil and a sheltered situation the standard form grafted on the Crab-apple is generally considered to be the most profitable. For shallow soils it is better to graft on to the Paradise stock, as its roots do not run down so low as the Crab. The ground, whether deep or shallow, should receive a good mulching in the autumn; that on the deep soil being dug in at the approach of spring, while that on the shallow soil should be removed in the spring to allow the ground to be lightly forked and sweetened, replacing the manure when the dry, hot weather sets in. The best time to perform the grafting is March, and it should be done on the whip-handle system, particulars of which will be found under "Grafting." Young trees may be planted in the autumn, as soon as the leaves have fallen. Budding is done in August, just in the same manner as roses. In spring head back to the bud; a vigorous shoot will then be produced, which can be trained as desired. Apples need very little pruning, it being merely necessary to remove branches growing in the wrong direction; but this should be done annually, while the branches are young--either at the end of July or in winter. If moss makes its appearance, scrape it off and wash the branches with hot lime. The following sorts may be specially recommended:--For heavy soils, Duchess of Oldenburgh, equally suitable for cooking or dessert; Warner's King, one of the best for mid-season; and King of the Pippins, a handsome and early dessert apple. For light, warm soils, Cox's Orange Pippin or Bess Pool. The Devonshire Quarrenden is a delicious apple, and will grow on any good soil. In orchards standards should stand 40 ft. apart each way, and dwarfs from 10 ft. to 15 ft.

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