Black.--A rich, deep soil and a moist situation, togetherwith partial shade, are most suitable for their growth. They succeed
better as bushes than as espaliers or trained to walls. Cuttings of
the previous year's growth are taken in autumn and planted firmly
ft. by 6 in. apart. In two years shift every alternate plant so as to
allow room for expansion, and plant out finally to a distance of 5 ft.
In pruning the bushes, remember that the fruit is borne on the young
wood, therefore only sufficient should be cut away to allow of
the admission of air and sunshine and the further growth of young
branches. A portion of the old wood should be removed each year. Mulch
the roots, and keep the plants supplied with water in dry seasons.
Baldwin's Black, Ogden's Black, Black Naples, Lee's Prolific, James'
Prolific, and Old Black are among the best.
Red and White.--An open, sunny position is needed. The soil that
suits them best is a deeply-manured, stiff loam. They are readily
raised from cuttings--which should be as long and strong as
possible--taken in autumn. Cut away all the eyes except the three
uppermost ones, and plant firmly in rows 1 ft. by 6 in. apart.
Transplant at the end of the second year to a distance of 5 ft. apart.
While the plants are young cut out all the top centre branches,
cutting always to an outgrowing bud, so as to give a cylindrical form
to the bush. In further pruning leave the leading shoots untouched,
but shorten all others to 4 in. or 6 in., and cut out all old, mossy
wood. Towards the end of June is a good time for cutting the young
wood away. The fruit is produced on spurs. In the autumn of each year
carefully dig in a good dressing of half-rotted manure, in such a
manner as not to injure the roots. Among the leading red varieties are
the following:--Champagne, Cherry, Chiswick Red, Houghton Castle, Raby
Castle, and Red Dutch. Of the white fruit the White Dutch and the
Cut-leaved White are the leaders. In plantations they should stand
from 4 ft. to 6 ft. apart.
Next: Currants, Flowering
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