Gardening Directory


These are plants that die down during the winter, butspring up and produce new stems annually. Some, as for instance Antirrhinums and Pansies, flower the first season, but usually they do not bloom till the second season. Many of the species improve

by age, forming large clumps or bushes. The stock is increased by division of the roots, which, if judiciously done, improves the plant. Like annuals, they are divided into classes of Hardy, Half-hardy, and Tender plants. Hardy perennials do not require artificial heat to germinate the seeds, or at any period of their growth, but are the most easily cultivated of all plants. Seed may be sown from March to midsummer, transplanting in the autumn to their flowering quarters; or it may be sown in August and September in a sheltered position to stand the winter. Half-hardy plants require artificial heat to germinate their seed, and must be gradually introduced into the open. They may be sown during March and April in frames or a greenhouse, when many will bloom the first season. If sown between May and the end of August they will flower the following spring and summer. They require protection during winter, such as is afforded by a cold pit, frame, or greenhouse, or the covering of a mat or litter. Tender perennials may be sown as directed above, but the plants should be kept constantly under glass. Some perennials, such as Pinks, Carnations, Saxifrages, etc., do not die down, but retain their leaves. These are called evergreen perennials.

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