Average Temperature 39.
Begin sowing hardy annuals outside in a sheltered position.
Refrain from pruning rose-trees, or they will suffer later on.
New lawns can be made now, though Autumn is the best time.
See that all trees are securely staked and shoots of
wall climbers well nailed in before the winds of March come. Prune remaining fruit trees. Seeds of broad beans, peas, carrots, onions, beetroot, parsley, lettuce, etc., can now be sown, though the largest sowing should be made next month. Plants under glass must have more air and more water as they begin to grow quickly. Ventilate carefully and close all the houses before sunset. Give manure to fruit trees. Look over fuchsias, dahlias, etc.; cut back and place in gentle warmth. MARCH. Average Temperature 41. Hardy perennials may be planted. Prune hardy rose trees. Sow the bulk of flowering annuals. Cut back ivy during last week. Free the lawn of plantains and sow grass-seed on bare patches. Renew or fill up box edgings. Hoe beds and borders frequently to keep down weeds. Rose trees may be planted, though Autumn is the best time. See that bedding plants in frames have plenty of water. Clear out all dead plants and give a general tidy-up to the greenhouse. Give plenty of air from top-lights to glasshouses. Plant out Jerusalem artichokes. Sow seeds of vegetables of all kinds. Pick up gravel paths, and give another layer if necessary. Protect anything newly planted from rough winds. Mulch bush fruit trees. APRIL. Average Temperature 46. Make last sowing of annuals and thin out those appearing above ground. Fill up gaps in the flower border. Plant out dahlias. Prune tea-roses during first week. If rather dry weather ensues keep rockery and all Spring-flowering plants well-watered. Beds must be prepared for the tender plants put out next month by turning the soil well over and thus pulverizing it. Protect tender fruit trees from late frosts. Sow seeds of vegetables for succession. If the weather is hot, shading can be put on greenhouses. Bedding plants must be gradually hardened off by giving plenty of air. Mow and roll lawn frequently. Plant out potato tubers. Edgings can be planted or filled up. MAY. Average Temperature 53. Keep a sharp look-out for insects. Commence bedding out this month and continue all through, reserving tender things such as coleus till the last. Hoe well between annuals and keep them well watered. Carefully train the various climbers or they will grow into an inextricable mass. Fill vases and baskets. Clip evergreen hedges as this makes them break out at the bottom. Put some strawy manure between the rows of strawberries and keep well watered. Sow vegetable seeds for succession. Plant out gourds, marrows, etc. If the weather is hot keep everything well watered. Transplant violets to their cool Summer quarters. Syringe frequently under glass. JUNE. Average Temperature 59. If the garden is not altogether dependent on bedding plants it ought to be looking its freshest and best. See that everything has enough water. Continue to thin out flowering annuals as they increase in size. Carefully stake larkspurs, carnations, etc. If the leaves of Spring bulbs have turned quite yellow, cut them off, but not before. Give copious supplies of water to all wall plants as a slight shower of rain scarcely touches them. Give occasional doses of manure to rose trees, and pick off all faded flowers. Water rockeries. Stake runner beans. Sow late broccoli. Sow more lettuce. Water peaches, apricots, etc., copiously. Mulch all fruit trees. Protect cherries from birds. Draw earth up round potatoes. Water marrows well and often with liquid manure. Early this month plant out tomatoes on a south or west wall. Keep greenhouses well ventilated both day and night. Harden off azaleas before being set outside next month. Most plants under glass will want watering twice a day or they must stand in a saucer of water. JULY. Average Temperature 62. Look out for rose suckers and cut them off. Syringe rose trees. Mulch those going out of flower to induce them to make fresh buds. Keep faded flowers picked off. Commence propagating carnations. Take note of gaps in the flower beds and fill up from the nursery garden. Place azaleas, heaths, etc., outside in a shady place to rest awhile. Pansies which are blooming well on cool borders should have weak solutions of guano water afforded them. Cut down faded spikes of larkspur and mulch and water well. This month bedding plants are valuable as July is not a good month for herbaceous perennials. Stake the later runner beans. Plant out celery. Sow more turnip seed. Syringe both wall fruit and standards. Make new plantations of strawberries. Water lawn every day if possible. Thin out the superfluous wood of fig trees and shorten gross shoots on all fruit trees. Keep everything well watered under glass. Give air all night to greenhouses. Tie up climbers to roof neatly and frequently syringe. Damp down several times daily. AUGUST. Average Temperature 61. Take pansy cuttings. Stake dahlias, phloxes, etc. Keep soil from caking by constant hoeing. Take cuttings of geraniums, fuchsias, etc., and strike them out of doors. Give copious supplies of water to rose trees and syringe foliage often. Cuttings of rose trees may be inserted now on a cool border. Rockeries must be constantly watered. Disentangle shoots of climbing plants and tie back artistically. Water lawn daily and do not cut too low. Cuttings of most plants may be taken now and inserted in a shady border with every chance of success. Cut down old raspberry canes to make way for the new. Protect fruit from wasps and other insects. Pinch off the tops of runner beans. Earth up celery and put out more young plants. Remove leaves which obstruct light on wall-peaches, apricots, etc. Syringe frequently. Give air day and night to greenhouses. Give constant supplies of liquid manure to chrysanthemums. Cut back climbing plants on the roof. SEPTEMBER. Average Temperature 57. Begin planting spring bulbs. Continue to take cuttings of bedding plants, but insert in frames now. Leave off giving outside plants stimulants. Sow hardy annuals to flower next Spring. Plant out rooted layers of carnations. Thin dahlia shoots and give plenty of water. Remove rose suckers. Pluck apples and pears as soon as ripe, and put on dry shelves to keep. The fruit should not touch. Prepare ground for new plantations. On hot days fruit trees can still be syringed to keep down insects. Plant out cabbages, sprouts, etc., from the seed bed. Earth up celery. Dig up and store potatoes. Towards the middle of the month remove greenhouse shading. Thin out climbers on roof again. Save for chrysanthemums guano is little needed now. Tender plants outside should be housed at the end of the month. Pot up freesias. Damp down less often and reduce the amount of air supplied. Ferns which were not repotted in the Spring can be done now. OCTOBER. Average Temperature 50. Plant Spring bulbs and the madonna lily. Take up all bedding plants and house carefully. Fill the beds with polyanthus, wallflower, forget-me-not and other early flowers. This is a good month for planting most things. Begin putting in shrubs. Thin out annuals sown last month. Cut back climbing plants. Keep hardy chrysanthemums well staked. Alterations can now proceed. Continue to pick pears and apples, and go over them daily to pick out mouldy ones. Commence planting fruit trees. Raspberry plantations should now be made. Mulch strawberry beds after forking lightly between the rows. Sow early peas in sheltered situations. Store potatoes, carrots, parsnips, etc. Give liquid manure to chrysanthemums under glass. Ventilate carefully and do not damp down. Bring September planted bulbs to the light as soon as they appear above ground. NOVEMBER. Average Temperature 43. Plant rose trees. Mulch every rose tree in the garden. Continue planting hardy perennials. Cut down all dead stalks of dahlias, sunflowers, phloxes, etc. Finish planting bulbs. Roll lawn frequently. New ones can now be made. Continually tidy up the garden. Finish planting shrubs. Protect fig-trees by mulching and cut back some of the over-luxuriant shoots. Plant fruit trees of all kinds. Trench ground not in use that the rain and frost may sweeten it. Prune currants and gooseberries. Hoe frequently between rows of cauliflower and cabbage. Celery must be earthed up higher. Any alterations that may be in hand should be completed this month. See that oil-lamp and other heating apparatus is in good order. Look over cuttings of geraniums, etc., and remove all decayed leaves, which should be burnt. Ventilate all glass houses much less, especially during fogs. DECEMBER. Average Temperature 39. Give a final glance to tender plants to see that they are well protected. Cut down faded stalks of hardy chrysanthemums. Place hand-lights over Christmas roses. This is a good time for writing new labels, preparing stakes, and making plans for the following summer. Roll gravel walks, and if mossy sprinkle with salt. Planting of fruit trees may continue if the weather be mild. Thin out gross wood to allow the air to circulate. Wheel manure on to the ground in frosty weather. Prepare vegetable seeds for sowing, by separating them from the husk, drying, labelling and sorting them. Earth up greens of all kinds with the hoe. In glasshouses avoid too much moisture at this dead season of the year. Only ventilate in mild, calm weather. Keep everything scrupulously clean. Give as much light as possible to growing things. Plants at rest should be kept dark.
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