Florida Clover

Florida clover (Desmodium tortuosum) is sometimes grown both for hay

and pasture, more especially in the Gulf States. It has been designated

botanically Desmodium molle, and is also known by the common names

Beggar Weed, Giant Beggar Weed, Beggar Ticks and Tickweed. The name

Florida Clover has been given to it because of its prevalence on the

light soils of Florida. The name beggar has probably been applied to

this plant because of its relation to poverty in soils, in which it is

more commonly grown, and the name ticks from the clinging habit of the

seed-pods to surfaces with which they come in contact.

Beggar Weed is an erect and branching plant, which grows from 2 to 10

feet high. The branches are woody in character, especially in the lower

parts, which prevents close cropping by animals grazing on the plants.

The trifoliate leaves are numerous, especially on the upper portions.

The panicle is erect and is considerably branched. The pods are prickly

and have many joints. These break asunder when matured, and are

frequently distributed by adhering to the covering of animals and the

clothing of men. The strong, spreading roots have much power to gather

food in the soil and also to enrich the same by means of the tubercles

formed on the roots.

[Illustration: Fig. 11. Beggar Weed or Florida Clover

(Desmodium tortuosum) (Flower and Seed Stems)

North Carolina Experiment Station]

This plant grows only in warm weather, and it is able to withstand much

drought. Its value for pasture and hay would seem to depend considerably

on the stage of growth at which it is grazed or harvested for hay. When

nearing maturity, stock do not relish it much, either as pasture or hay.

It is frequently classed as a weed, but in certain poor soils it has

been deemed worthy of cultivation.

Beggar weed is native to the West India Islands and also, it is thought,

to Southern Florida. In 1879 seeds were distributed by the Department of

Agriculture. It is now grown more or less in the wild or cultivated form

in all the Gulf States. While it may be successfully grown as far north

as the Ohio River, it is not probable that it will be sown far north of

any of the Gulf States, since other fodder plants more valuable in

producing food can be grown to supply the wants of live stock. At the

Minnesota University Experiment Farm, the author sowed seed in May.

The plants came into bloom in September, but did not mature any seed.

Beggar weed will grow on almost any kind of soil reasonably free from an

excess of ground moisture. Its power to grow on poor and light soils,

even light enough to lift with the wind, is very considerable. Its

highest use will probably be found on soils so light and sterile that

better forms of useful vegetation are not easily grown on them.

It can scarcely be called a rotation plant, since it more commonly grows

in the wild form, and on lands so poor as to be considered unprofitable

for regular cropping. But when cultivated, it should be followed by some

crop that can make a good use of the nitrogen left in the soil in the

tubercles formed on the roots of the beggar weed plants.

The soil does not, as a rule, require deep stirring when preparing it

for beggar weed. This fact finds demonstration in the ability of the

plants to re-seed the ground when grown for grazing.

The seed is usually sown in the Gulf States late in March or early in

April. It germinates slowly, and the plants make the most vigorous

growth after the weather becomes warm. The seed is more commonly

scattered broadcast, but may be drilled in, and at distances that will

or will not admit of cultivation as may be desired. Thick seeding is

preferable to prevent coarseness and woodiness in the growth of the

plants. Not less than 10 pounds of hulled seed per acre should be sown

in the broadcast form when sown for hay. When sown in drills, less seed

is required, but usually the seed is sown broadcast. In the hulled form,

in which the seed is more commonly sold, according to Professor H. H.

Hume, the measured bushel weighs 60 to 64 pounds, and with the hulls on,

from 10 to 40 pounds, the average weight, as purchased by dealers, being

about 20 pounds. The cleaned seed bears considerable resemblance to

clover seed.

All kinds of farm stock, as cattle, horses, mules, sheep and even swine,

are said to do well when grazing on beggar-weed pastures in the summer

and autumn. They do not usually graze it closely after it has been well

started, owing to the woody character of the stems. When thus cropped

back, it starts out afresh, and thus continues to produce grazing until

the arrival of frost. It is said that the pasture is of but little value

in winter. One strong point, however, in favor of such pastures, is the

ability of the plants to re-seed the land when not grazed too closely,

and thus to perpetuate the grazing from year to year.

No little diversity of opinion exists as to the value of this plant for

producing hay. Some growers speak highly of its palatability and

nutrition. Others speak of it as being of very little value as a hay

plant. This difference in opinion is doubtless due largely to cutting

the crop at different stages of growth. If allowed to become too

advanced before it is cut, the woody character of the hay would

doubtless make it unpalatable, whereas, if cut early, at least as early

as the showing of the first blooms, if not, indeed, earlier, it would be

eaten with a much greater relish. The yields of hay are said to usually

exceed 2 tons per acre.

The seed matures in September and October. The methods of saving the

seed have usually been of a somewhat primitive character, as by hand

when saved in small quantities. But there would seem to be no reason why

the seed crop could not be harvested by the binder.

Where alfalfa or cow peas can be successfully grown, either crop would

be preferable. But on some soils these are not a success, especially

when the first attempts are made to grow crops. The choice of hay may be

one between a crop of beggar weed and no crop at all. All are agreed as

to the renovation which it brings to soils; hence, when grown or allowed

to grow on unproductive soil for a few years and then plowed under, the

soil becomes productive. Since it grows late rather than early in the

season where the seed is in the land, it will not interfere with the

growth of the corn, but will come on later, and thus exert a beneficial

influence on the soil. But the fact should not be overlooked that beggar

weed once in the land has considerable power to stay there. In other

words, like sweet clover, it has some of the characteristics of a weed.

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