Cuttings and small plants are put into two-inch or "thumb" pots. Some of

the larger growing geraniums or very sturdy plants require

two-and-one-half inch pots, but the smaller size should be used when


The soil for pots up to three inches should be screened, but not made

too fine. A coal-ash sifter, or half-inch screen will do. The soil

should be made up as directed in Chapter III.

The pots should be thoroughly cleaned with sand and water, or by a

several days' soaking, and then wiping out with a cloth, if they have

been used before. An old pot, with dirt sticking to the inside and the

pores all clogged up, will not do good work. Old or new, they should be

immersed in water until through bubbling just before using; otherwise

they will absorb too much moisture from the soil.

The method of potting should depend somewhat upon the condition of the

roots of the cutting. If they are less than half an inch long, as they

should be, fill the pot level full of soil, make a hole with the

forefinger of one hand; insert the cutting to about half its depth with

the other, rap the bottom of the pot smartly against the bench to settle

the earth, and then press it down firmly with the thumbs, leveling it

as the pot is placed to one side in an empty flat. (The jarring down of

the soil should precede the firming with the thumbs, as this will

compact the soil more evenly within the pot.) This should leave the soil

a little below the rim of the pot, making a space to hold water when

watering; and the cutting should be so firmly embedded that it cannot be

moved without breaking the soil.

With cuttings whose roots have been allowed to grow an inch or more in

length, and plants with a considerable ball of roots--as they should

have when coming from the transplanting flats--it is better partly to

fill the pot. Hold the plant or cutting in position with the left hand

and press the soil in about it with the right hand--firming it as

directed in the former case. With a little practice either operation can

be performed very rapidly. Florists do four to five hundred pots an


When for any reason it is necessary to put a small or weakly rooted

plant or cutting, or a cutting that is just on the point of sending

forth roots, in a pot that seems too large, put it near the edge of the

pot, instead of in the middle. This will often save a plant which would

otherwise be lost, and at the next shift it can, of course, be put in

the center of the pot.

If no small pots are at hand, several small plants or cuttings can be

put around the edge of a four-or five-inch pot, with good results. Care

must be taken, however, not to give too much water.

As soon as the little plants or cuttings are potted up, give them a

thorough watering and place them where the holes in the bottoms of the

pots will not be clogged with soil. A large flat, in the bottom of which

an inch of pebbles, coarse sand or sifted cinders has been put, will be

a good place for them. Keep shaded during the hot part of the day for

three or four days. At first the pots may be placed as close together as

possible, but in a very short time--two weeks at the most, if the

growing conditions are right--they will need to be put farther apart.

Nothing will injure them so quickly as being left crowded together where

they cannot get enough air. Better, if necessary, give or throw away

half of them than to attempt to grow fifty plants where you have room

for only two dozen.

As before, water only when necessary, i.e., when the surface of the

soil begins to look whitish and dry. Then water thoroughly. Until by

practice you know just what they need, knock a few out of the pots, say

fifteen minutes after watering, and see if the ball of earth has been

wet through to the bottom; if not, you are not doing the job thoroughly.

If the pots do not dry out between waterings, but stay muddy and heavy,

either your soil is not right or you have used pots too large for your


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