Apple Growing


A proper soil and a good location and site having been selected, the next important question to be decided is the varieties to be planted. So much and so variable advice is given on this question that many persons are at a loss

as to what to plant and too often decide the matter by planting the wrong varieties. Rightly viewed, the question of varieties is a comparatively simple one. Personal preference, tempered by careful study of certain factors and good judgment, are all that are required. Beginners, especially, are too apt to rely entirely on another's opinion. The only safe way is to learn the facts and then decide for yourself. We have already indicated that soil is a determinant in the choice of varieties. This should be absolute. It is very unwise to try to grow any variety on a soil where experience has shown that it does not do well. The experience of your neighbors is the best guide in this respect. The limitations of climate should also be carefully heeded. An apple may be at its best in one latitude or one situation and at its worst in another. Find out from experienced growers in your region, or from your State Experiment Station what varieties are best adapted climatically to the place where you live. It is an excellent rule never to plant a variety that you cannot grow at least as well as any one else, or still better, to plant a variety that you can grow better than anyone else. Grow something that not everyone can grow. Do not try to produce more of a variety of which there is already an over supply. A few examples may make this more clear. Western New York is the home of the Baldwin, the Twenty Ounce and the King. Albemarle Pippins grown on the eastern slope of the Blue Ridge are famous. The Spitzenburg appears at its best in the Northwest. The Northern Spy, the McIntosh, and the Fameuse are not to be excelled as they are grown in the Champlain Valley, in Vermont, or in Maine. To attempt to compete with these sections in the growing of these varieties, except under equally favorable conditions, would be foolish. Your section probably grows some varieties to perfection. Find out what these varieties are and plant them. All these are general factors to be observed which cannot be specifically settled without knowing the soil and particular locality. Certain other factors governing the choice of varieties can be more definitely outlined. If the prospective orchardist will get these factors thoroughly in mind and apply them with judgment mistakes in planting should be much more rare. The more important ones are: The purpose for which the fruit is intended to be used, whether for the general market, a dessert or fancy trade, or for culinary and general table use; whether the trees are to be permanent and long lived, or temporary and used as fillers; whether the earliest possible income is desired or whether this is to be secondary to the future development of the orchard; whether the stock of the particular variety is strong or weak growing; whether the variety is high, medium, or low as to quality; and whether the market is to be local, distant, or export. The following tables were originally compiled by Professor C.S. Wilson of Cornell University. They have been slightly revised and modified for our purpose. We believe that they are essentially correct and that they will be a safe guide for the reader to follow in his selection of varieties: GENERAL MARKET APPLES DESSERT OR FANCY TRADE COMMERCIAL BOX WELL Baldwin McIntosh Ben Davis Northern Spy Hubbardson Fameuse Northern Spy Wagener King Grimes Golden Rome Beauty Yellow Newton Oldenburg Red Canada Alexander King Twenty Ounce Sutton Winesap Hubbardson York Imperial Esopus Spitzenburg CULINARY AND GENERAL TABLE USE Rhode Island Greening Grimes Golden Gravenstein Twenty Ounce Newtown Yellow Bellflower Alexander Oldenburg Tolman Sweet Sweet Winesap GOOD PERMANENT GOOD TEMPORARY TREES TREES--FILLERS Baldwin McIntosh Rhode Island Greening Wealthy Northern Spy Wagener McIntosh Rome Beauty *King Oldenburg *Twenty Ounce Jonathan *Hubbardson Alexander Alexander Twenty Ounce Rome Beauty Hubbardson * When this variety is set as a permanent tree it should be top worked on a hardier stock, such as Northern Spy. Age at which variety may be expected to begin to fruit. (Add two years for a paying crop). FIVE YEARS OR UNDER EIGHT YEARS AND UP Rome Beauty Esopus Spitzenburg Oldenburg Fall Pippin Maiden Blush Golden Russet Wagener Northern Spy Yellow Newton Baldwin McIntosh Gravenstein Fameuse Tolman Sweet King Rhode Island Gr. Twenty Ounce Winesap ESPECIALLY HARDY STOCKS POOR RATHER WEAK GROWERS* Northern Spy King Tolman Sweet Twenty Ounce Ben Davis Esopus Spitzenburg Baldwin Hubbardson Fameuse Grimes Golden Winter Banana Sutton Canada Red * Other varieties are medium. HIGH IN QUALITY LOCAL OR PEDDLER'S VARIETIES McIntosh Rhode Island Greening Esopus Spitzenburg Wealthy Northern Spy McIntosh Newtown Fameuse Gravenstein Tolman Sweet Red Canada Grimes Golden Fameuse Jonathan Grimes Golden Hubbardson GOOD GENERAL MARKET VARIETIES Rhode Island Greening Baldwin MEDIUM TO POOR QUALITY Rhode Island King Ben Davis Twenty Ounce Oldenburg McIntosh Rome Beauty Hubbardson Roxbury Russet Northern Spy GOOD EXPORT VARIETIES Baldwin Newtown Ben Davis Esopus Spitzenburg Northern Spy Jonathan Only the best and most common varieties for the more northern latitudes have been included in this list as it would make it too cumbersome to classify all our known varieties. It must be remembered that this is not an arbitrary classification and that it is made as a guide to indicate to the reader the general characteristics of the variety. It should be used as such and not taken literally. The characters of the different varieties grade into each other. For example, the McIntosh is very high and the Ben Davis is very low in quality but the King and the Twenty Ounce are neither very good nor very poor, but midway between. We must again remind the reader that the choice of varieties is a matter of judgment, tempered by the facts regarding them. One who is not capable of rendering such judgment after studying his conditions and the characteristics and requirements of leading varieties had better stay out of the apple business entirely, as he will often be called on for the exercise of good judgment in caring for the orchard. The facts here given are intended as suggestive. The reader who desires to know more of a particular variety will do well to consult Beach's "Apples of New York," published by the Geneva Experiment Station.

Previous: Soils
Next: Planting And Growing The Orchard

Add to Add to Reddit Add to Digg Add to Add to Google Add to Twitter Add to Stumble Upon

Add to Informational Site Network